Dulcinea  Grantham

Partner | Walnut Creek

Attorney Insights

Tel: 925.953.1620
Fax: 925.953.1625
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Dulcinea Grantham is a Partner in Lozano Smith's Walnut Creek office. Her expertise also includes student law. Ms. Grantham has significant experience handling layoff hearings, arbitrations and classified and certificated employee dismissal matters. She has handled small and large layoffs, including hearings in excess of 300 full-time employees.


Prior to joining Lozano Smith, Ms. Grantham served as Deputy Legislative Counsel for the California Legislative Counsel's office in Sacramento, California. She provided nonpartisan legal services for Members of the Legislature. She drafted bills, constitutional amendments, resolutions, and amendments to those measures, particularly in the areas of elementary and secondary education, elections, legislative procedure, and private employment.

Ms. Grantham was an adjunct faculty member with the University of San Francisco School of Law where she provided instruction to law students on the legislative process, legislative drafting, and statutory interpretation. Ms. Grantham also was an extern with the California Supreme Court, Chambers of Justice Kennard; a law clerk with the United States Attorney's Office, Northern District of California; and a project clerk with Lewis and Roca, LLP in Tucson, AZ. She interned in the Office of Senator John McCain in Washington, D.C. and in the Ward III City Council Office in Tucson, Arizona.

Presenter Experience

Ms. Grantham has been a speaker for the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA) on a wide range of topics including negotiating in difficult fiscal times and student residency and transfers. She has made presentations on hiring and supervising athletic employees for the National School Boards Association (NSBA) and CSBA.


Ms. Grantham has written numerous, significant articles. They include:
  • "Code of Conduct: Reviewing and Auditing Your Hiring and Supervision Practices for Athletic Coaches" published by American School Board Journal, Volume 198, No. 8, August 2011;

  • "Certificated Step and Column Freezes" published by School Services of California, in the Fiscal Report, Volume 30, No. 1, January 2010;

  • "The Impact of the European Union Data Privacy Directive Safe Harbor on U.S. Privacy Practices: Is it Time for Congress to Take Action to Strengthen U.S. Privacy Laws?" published in the Fall 2001 issue of the Journal of Internet Law; and

  • "Transforming Transplantation: The Effect of the Health and Human Services Final Rule on the Organ Allocation System" published in the University of San Francisco Law Review in 2001.

Professional Affiliations

Ms Grantham is a member of the Labor and Employment Section of the California Bar, the National School Boards Association's Council of School Attorneys, and the California Council of School Attorneys.


Ms. Grantham received her J.D., cum laude, from the University of San Francisco School of Law and her B.A. from the University of Arizona. She is a member of the State Bar of California.

More Time For Paid Family Leave Is Now Available For State Employees

By: Dulcinea GranthamMarina Ramirez-

September 2019Number 39Governor Gavin Newsom recently signed Senate Bill (SB) 83. SB 83 affects employees who are eligible for and pay into State Disability Insurance (SDI). SDI allows employees to receive income replacement for up to six weeks while disabled and off work. SB 83 extends the wage replacement benefits under SDI from six weeks to eight weeks effective July 1, 2020. In addition, SB 83 expands the uses for California's SDI to include:care for a seriously ill child, spouse, parents...

Court Reaffirms Absences To Attend Medical Appointments May Be Evidence Of A Disability

By: Dulcinea GranthamJanae Castellani-

July 2019Number 34In Ross v. County of Riverside, decided on June 20, 2019, the California Court of Appeal for the Fourth Appellate District reaffirmed that repeated or extended absences from work for the purpose of attending doctor's appointments amount to a limitation on a major life activity, thus physical impairments which cause such repeated or extended absences may meet the definition of a physical disability.Christopher Ross, a County of Riverside employee, brought a lawsuit against hi...

Employees’ Representation Rights Now Expand Beyond Oral Interviews

By: Dulcinea GranthamJayme Duque-

January 2019Number 6Three recent decisions by the Public Employment Relation Board (PERB) have expanded or highlighted employees' rights to union representation when employees are asked to prepare a written statement or are searched unclothed.Written StatementsIn San Bernardino Community College District (2018) PERB Dec. No. 2599, PERB expanded the right to union representation to those circumstances where an employee is asked to provide a written statement. In this case, an employee was ques...

Bathrooms Are No Longer Acceptable Lactation Accommodations

By: Dulcinea GranthamMichelle Sliwa-

November 2018Number 66Beginning January 1, 2019, employers will have to make reasonable efforts to provide employees with the use of a room or location, other than a bathroom, as a lactation accommodation.Existing law already requires employers to make reasonable efforts to provide employees the use of a room or location, other than a single toilet stall, in close proximity to the employee's work area for the purpose of expressing milk in private. Under these requirements, employers could pro...

New Law Requires Districts to Pay Employees on Parental Leave at Least 50% of Their Salaries

By: Dulcinea Grantham-

October 2018Number 64Starting January 1, 2019, California school and community college districts will be required to pay certificated, classified, and academic employees eligible for parental leave under recently enacted laws at least 50% of their salaries once they exhaust their sick leave and begin taking differential leave. This requirement applies regardless of the rate districts pay substitute employees to fill in for the employees on parental leave. The new law is a result of Assembly B...

New Law Aims to Protect Public Employers and Unions from State Lawsuits to Recover “Fair Share” Fees

By: Dulcinea Grantham-

September 2018Number 54A new law provides public employers and public sector unions with legal immunity under state law from claims to recover the deduction of mandatory agency fees, or "fair share" fees, collected before the United States Supreme Court issued its decision in Janus v. AFSCME on June 27, 2018. Senate Bill (SB) 846 is effective immediately.BackgroundPrior to the Janus decision, the United States Supreme Court previously held that it was constitutional for public sector unions t...

California Attorney General Advisory Affirms Public Sector Labor Rights and Obligations

By: Dulcinea GranthamRoxana Khan-

September 2018Number 53As the United States Supreme Court's Janus ruling continues to reverberate throughout the nation, California public sector employers can look to Attorney General Xavier Becerra's August 31, 2018 advisory for guidance regarding labor rights and employer obligations that still apply in California's public workplaces.The two-page advisory "re-affirms" California's "full support" for California labor rights, particularly the following public sector statutory rights:The empl...

PERB Reaffirms Importance of Meeting and Conferring with Unions

By: Dulcinea Grantham-

August 2018Number 36The Public Employment Relations Board (PERB) recently reaffirmed the importance of meeting and conferring with unions regarding information requests. In Department of State Hospitals (PERB Dec. No. 2568-S) (DSH), PERB concluded that an employer violated the Dills Act by refusing to provide relevant and necessary information to a union requesting such information in order to represent its member.BackgroundA group of 14 patients filed a complaint against a DSH employee that ...

Lawmakers Okay Budget Bill Addressing Union Dues Collection and Communications about Membership Rights

By: Dulcinea GranthamGabriela Flowers-

June 2018Number 29California lawmakers have approved a budget trailer bill that imposes new obligations on public sector employers related to deducting union dues and fees from workers' paychecks. Governor Jerry Brown signed Senate Bill (SB) 866 on the same day the United States Supreme Court barred the collection of mandatory agency fees that cover unions' cost of providing services, which the Court deemed a violation of workers' First Amendment free speech rights. (See 2018 CNB No. 27.)The ...

Supreme Court Rules Public Sector Union Agency Fees Are Unlawful

By: Dulcinea GranthamErin HamorGabriela Flowers-

This news brief is intended for public school districts, including community colleges. For the Janus news brief intended for municipalities and special districts, click here.June 2018Number 27Overturning a longstanding precedent, the United States Supreme Court has held in Janus v. AFSCME that public employees may not be compelled to pay mandatory agency fees, or "fair share" fees, to public-sector unions, because such fees violate the First Amendment.The Janus decision will have a sweeping, ...

California Adds “Nonbinary” Gender Option to Identification Documents, Impacting All Public Entities

By: Dulcinea GranthamSarah GarciaJoshua Whiteside-

March 2018 Number 13 On October 15, 2017, Governor Jerry Brown signed Senate Bill (SB) 179, known as the "Gender Recognition Act," which adds a "nonbinary" gender option to state driver's licenses, identification cards, and birth certificates. Most of this bill's provisions are set to take effect on September 1, 2018, including a provision allowing an individual to petition a California court to recognize their gender as nonbinary, which would then allow them to subsequently request a new...

When Politics and Walkouts Come to the Workplace: Considerations for Teachers, Superintendents, and Governing Boards

By: Dulcinea GranthamGabriela FlowersTilman Heyer-

March 2018 Number 8 The February 14 mass shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School has inspired a groundswell of political activism at K-12 schools across the country. Lozano Smith previously reported on considerations and implications of student activism surrounding this issue. (See 2018 Client News Brief No. 7.) School districts must also consider if and how to regulate and respond to employee speech surrounding the gun control debate and other controversial topics. Additionally,...

School District Policy Prohibiting Active Strikers from Entering School Grounds Violated the First Amendment

By: Dulcinea Grantham-

February 2018 Number 6 A public school district's policies prohibiting picketing and the display of signs and banners on District property violated the free speech rights of picketers and their supporters, the Ninth Circuit has ruled. (Eagle Point Educ. Ass'n. v. Jackson County School District No. 9 (9th Cir. Jan. 26, 2018, Nos. 15-35704, 15-35972) ___ F.3d ___.) Background Anticipating a teacher strike, the Jackson County School District No. 9 in Oregon adopted two resolutions th...

Opioid Testing Now Required for Employees in Safety-Sensitive Transportation Positions

By: Dulcinea Grantham-

December 2017 Number 86 Effective January 1, 2018, the federal Department of Transportation (DOT) will require safety-sensitive transportation employees, such as county, city, and school district bus drivers, to be tested for prescription opioids in an effort to tackle opioid abuse. The DOT's final rule, which was published on November 13, 2017, amends the Code of Federal Regulations. Under the new rule, the DOT will require safety-sensitive transportation employees to be tested for th...

United States Supreme Court to Again Review Mandatory Union Fees

By: Dulcinea GranthamJayme Duque-

October 2017 Number 67 On September 28, 2017, the United States Supreme Court agreed to review the Illinois case Janus v. AFSCME, Council 31, which challenges the constitutionality of "fair share" or "agency" fees collected by unions. A decision in the case is anticipated by June 2018. Janus challenges the constitutionality of fair share fees (a.k.a. agency fees) under Illinois law. Specifically, the Illinois Public Relations Act allows unions to collect fair share fees from non-union ...

Rescission of DACA: What Public Agencies Need to Know

By: Dulcinea GranthamSloan Simmons-

October 2017 Number 57 On September 5, 2017, the Trump Administration announced plans to end the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. The program temporarily permitted some 800,000 undocumented immigrants who arrived in the United States as children to lawfully stay, attend school, and work in the U.S. without the threat of deportation. The Administration is phasing out the program over a six-month period that will end on March 5, 2018, unless Congress enacts legislation...

Two New Laws Intended to Address Teacher Shortage

By: Dulcinea GranthamRoxana Khan-

September 2017 Number 54 Governor Jerry Brown signed two bills intended to ease California's teacher shortage. Assembly Bill (AB) 681 seeks to expedite processing of credential applications for teachers who studied in other countries, while AB 170 eliminates the requirement that an applicant for a multiple subject teaching credential possess a bachelor's degree in a subject other than education. Both laws take effect January 1, 2018. AB 681 will give the Commission on Teacher Creden...

New Law Broadens List of Sex Offenses that Lead to Immediate Suspension of Teaching Credential

By: Dulcinea GranthamJanae Castellani-

September 2017 Number 52 State lawmakers have revised the list of sex offenses that mandate the immediate suspension of a teaching credential. These changes take effect on January 1, 2018. Assembly Bill (AB) 872 adds several sex offenses to the list of offenses that lead to immediate suspension of a teaching credential, contained in Education Code section 44010. The new list includes all sex crimes requiring registration under the Sex Offender Act, as spelled out in subdivision (c) of ...

Employers Must Provide Information on Rights of Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking Victims

By: Dulcinea Grantham-

July 2017 Number 39 California employers with 25 or more employees must now inform their employees in writing about the legal rights of domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking victims. Employers, including public agencies, must provide this information using the form prepared by the California Labor Commissioner or in a notice that is substantially similar to the Labor Commissioner's form in content and clarity. The form must be provided to new employees upon hire and to other empl...

New Law Requires Union Access to Employee Orientation Sessions

By: Louis LozanoDulcinea Grantham-

June 2017 Number 34 Governor Jerry Brown has signed legislation that requires public agency employers to give union representatives access to new employees during orientation sessions. The bill, which went into effect immediately after Brown signed it on June 27, is part of Assembly Bill (AB) 119, a budget trailer bill. The bill is a product of the efforts by unions representing public employees to mitigate the impact of an anticipated United States Supreme Court decision that could m...

High Court Declines to Review Ruling on Cash in Lieu Payments

By: Dulcinea GranthamJayme Duque-

June 2017 Number 28 The United States Supreme Court has denied review of a Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling that cash payments made to employees in lieu of benefits must be included as pay when calculating their overtime pay rate under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). On May 15, 2017, the Court denied the City of San Gabriel's petition for review of Flores v. City of San Gabriel (2016) 824 F.3d 890 (Flores), allowing the decision to remain legal precedent. Flores provides narr...

Significant Cases

Ms. Grantham authored an amicus brief on behalf of the California School Boards Association (CSBA) in the Hildebrandt v. St. Helena USD case. Hildebrandt established a school district's right to maintain full-time teaching or service positions without being forced to split the positions to accommodate senior laid off employees. Ms. Grantham successfully represented Sonoma Valley Unified School District at the California Court of Appeal in McIntyre v. Sonoma Valley Unified School District, where a certificated employee challenged her temporary employee classification. In that decision, the Court affirmed the authority of school districts to classify certificated employees as temporary for multiple years and upheld prior case law confirming that school districts are not required to match each temporary employee to a specific employee on leave. Also of note, while at the California Legislative Counsel's Office, Ms Grantham represented the California Legislature in Californians for an Open Primary v. McPherson (38 Cal.4th 735).

Preparing for 2019 – New Employee Leave and Accommodations Requirements

By: Dulcinea GranthamNiki Nabavi Nouri-

Are you prepared for 2019? Join Lozano Smith attorneys Dulcinea Grantham and Niki Nabavi Nouri as they discuss three important employee leave and accommodations requirements that will impact school districts and public agencies in the coming year.